lunes, 30 de abril de 2018
domingo, 29 de abril de 2018
sábado, 28 de abril de 2018
José María Chávez Alonso
José María Chávez Alonso (n. Encarnación de Díaz, Jalisco, 26 de febrero de 1812 - Hacienda de Mal Paso, Zacatecas, 5 de abrilde 1864). Político mexicano, gobernador constitucional del estado de Aguascalientesde 1862 a 1863. En 1818, se traslada con su familia a la ciudad de Aguascalientes donde inicia sus estudios primarios y aprende el oficio de carpintero. Fue abuelo del músico nacionalista mexicano Carlos Chávez.
viernes, 27 de abril de 2018
miércoles, 25 de abril de 2018
martes, 24 de abril de 2018
lunes, 23 de abril de 2018
Mis perros se jalaron, y al jalarse me lastimaron los dedos. Me los doblaron hacia el lado opuesto de su posición natural. Ahora me duelen mucho especialmente la raíz de los dedos. Voy a ir con el doctor a pedirle de favor si me puede revisar.
794 to 1185
domingo, 22 de abril de 2018
LA FERIA NACIONAL DE SAN MARCOS DE AGUASCALIENTES.
La Feria de San Marcos es una fiesta anual. Gente de todas partes del país vienen a visitar Aguascalientes. Siempre comienza en abril y termina a principios de mayo. Hay muchas atracciones interesantes. Puedes ir al Palenque a ver la Pelea de Gallos, o ahí mismo puedes ir a ver a cantantes y bandas famosas. También puedes ir a la Isla de San Marcos y ahí puedes disfrutar de los productos típicos del Estado y ver las mejores muestras de ganado.
Durante este tiempo la gente puede tomar alcohol libremente en las calles. Incluso hasta muy entrada la noche. También, entre más tarde, hay más gente mala y más crimen por lo que hay que tener cuidado. Aún cuando haya muchos policías, el riesgo siempre existe.
También hay que tener cuidado con los precios que nos ofrecen, pues la gente pretende hacer su agosto con esta celebración, en particular los taxistas quienes abusan del público, quien tiene necesidad de trasladarse para poder ganar más de lo normal.
Otra costumbre es el toreo, que por cierto ya ha sido prohibido en casi todo el mundo pero aún perdura en Aguascalientes.* Las razones son desconocidas, pero posiblemente un factor se deba a que esta tradición tiene nexos con la clase alta, quien en su mayor parte define las leyes del Estado, además de que tal primitiva práctica atrae a mucha gente y genera muchísimo dinero.
*A pesar de que ya se ha prohibido en varios Estados.
sábado, 21 de abril de 2018
miércoles, 18 de abril de 2018
martes, 17 de abril de 2018
lunes, 16 de abril de 2018
domingo, 15 de abril de 2018
there is a special calculation to find out
Como indicador adicional, existe un principio económico llamado Price to rent ratio que puede servir como punto de referencia para determinar si, en cierta zona, es mejor alquilar o comprar. Este se calcula con la relación entre los precios de una vivienda y la renta anual de la misma.
Calcular este ratio es bastante simple, básicamente hay que dividir el precio de venta entre la renta anual del inmueble en cuestión. La teoría del Price to rent ratio nos dice que, si el resultado es mayor a 20, es mucho más conveniente rentar que comprar, y si es menor a 15, debes aprovechar la oportunidad de comprar. Si la cifra se encuentra entre 16 y 19, habrá que evaluar otros puntos como el tiempo que planeas vivir en ella, los intereses de tu hipoteca, etc.
viernes, 13 de abril de 2018
jueves, 12 de abril de 2018
miércoles, 11 de abril de 2018
C.24 Note-reading according to Jones
Aim: to practise simultaneously reading ahead in your notes without interrupting your interpreting.
You will need: speech transcript, notepad.
Take notes from the transcript of a speech. Do it relatively quickly, without going back over the speech time and time again. When you've finished, read back the speech from your notes. Try to apply the technique described by Roderick Jones below and you'll immediately see how your attention is divided between the tasks of talking, reading ahead and recalling what you've read.
There is a specific technique that interpreters can try to develop, and which can be compared to a pianist reading music while playing but not sight-reading. The pianist who has practised a piece is in a similar situation to the consecutive interpreter: essentially they know what they want to play but the sheet-music is there to remind them. The pianist looks at the opening bars and then starts playing, and continues reading ahead of the notes they are playing, their eyes on the music always being a little ahead of their fingers on the keyboard. Similarly the interpreter should look at the first page of their notes then start speaking while looking up at their audience. As the interpreter moves towards the end of the passage they have looked at, they glance down at their notes again to read the next passage. In other words they do not wait until they finished one passage to look again at their notes, which would mean that the interpretation would become jerky, reading then speaking, reading then speaking. Rather the interpreter, while still talking, is already reading ahead, preparing the next passage, thus providing for a smooth, uninterrupted and efficient interpretation.
Source: Jones 1998: 64 (Gillies) Gillies, Andrew. Conference Interpreting. Routledge, 20130724. VitalBook file.
B.54 Total listening
Aim: to force yourself to recall and enunciate grammatical structures and lexis that you would not normally use.
You will need: a recorded speech.
Listen to a speech. Pause the recording after each sentence and repeat that sentence without listening again.
Source: (Gillies)Gillies, Andrew. Conference Interpreting. Routledge, 20130724. VitalBook file.
5 Read specialist magazines
Aim: to acquire the general knowledge that educated native speakers have in a broad range of subjects (from the viewpoint of that country).
You will need: a specialist newsagent, a specialist magazine, internet connection to look up terms, a notepad.
Buy specialist magazines (Aeroplanes Today!; Potholing Weekly; Market Gardeners' Monthly; Trainspotter etc.). They will all have explanations of how things work, as well as a good selection of semi-technical terminology. The most useful terms will be those that come up several times in one edition; look up and note these. Don't worry about terms that appear only once.
If you buy several specialist magazines on the same subject over a period of 3–6 months, the terminology and subjects that are repeated will give you a sound grounding in that subject area. This exercise will not only give you a broad range of vocabulary in semi-technical subjects but may also help to cultivate the curiosity that is important for interpreters. Read a few of this type of magazine and you may well find yourself developing a real interest in areas you thought you would find boring! (Gillies)Gillies, Andrew. Conference Interpreting. Routledge, 20130724. VitalBook file.
martes, 10 de abril de 2018
B.16 Re-introducing context
Aim: to activate general knowledge, practise analysing what is implicit in what is explicitly mentioned.
You will need: at least one other person, and a series of newspaper headlines (preferably current).
One person presents a newspaper headline. The others must then expand on the headline by adding in as much historical and contextual information as they can and by making explicit anything that is implicit. At first this can take the form of a group brainstorming session, but later each person should be able to do this immediately in the form of a presentation or speech. Prompt each other with questions if necessary. (Gillies) Gillies, Andrew. Conference Interpreting. Routledge, 20130724. VitalBook file.
B.15 General knowledge collocation
Aim: to practise using general knowledge to reconstruct missing parts of the original.
You will need: a speaker, a list of collocations of proper names.
Have the speaker of speeches used in practice mumble a few words incomprehensibly, or cough over one half of a collocation. Using your general knowledge, fill in the gaps. This can be done with both consecutive and simultaneous speeches. Do this exercise first as a monolingual exercise, for instance from English to English, and then later from one language to another.
For example, ‘cheddar cheese’ would be halved to ‘cheddar cough’ and the interpreters would be required to complete the gap. Other examples of the type of collocation with which speeches could be liberally sprinkled are: Amnesty International, Buckingham Palace, Hereditary Peers, London Eye, Scotland Yard.
(Gillies) Gillies, Andrew. Conference Interpreting. Routledge, 20130724. VitalBook file.
C.83 Visual memory linking
Aim: to demonstrate the power of visual linking.
You will need: a bit of imagination, an open mind.
This exercise is based on a memory technique called visual linking. Each element of the speech will be associated with a visual image in the mind's eye. And each image will be linked to the next, creating an unbroken chain of images through the speech. For more about memorization techniques see Lorayne (1958), Lorayne and Lucas (1974), and Daniels in the bibliography.
In the example below, first follow the instructions for creating a series of visual links. Then ask somebody to read out, or paraphrase aloud, the speech that follows. Can you recall the speech on the basis of the visual images? Try to give back the speech, initially in the same language as the original. To do this effectively, and quickly enough to make use of it in consecutive interpreting, you'll need to practise it a fair bit. If it works well for you, move on to doing the same from one language into another.
One person visualizes the following in their mind's eye.
Imagine a map of France and the UK, and on that map a person is bouncing around like on a trampoline between France and the UK. (Cultural differences)
As they are bouncing up and down on the UK you see the picture turn to a side-view and that the UK is actually the fl at top of a huge number 5, part of a larger number, 1995.
You look at the person bouncing on top of the number 5 and you see that it is in fact Tony Blair, who then takes a huge leap forwards and flies through the nought of a huge representation of the figures 2005.
When he lands he is outside a very English house, looking in through the windows. As he peers in through the window inside he can see someone sitting in an armchair in their own private living room. (Private information)
At that moment a series of artillery shells crash through the windows. (National security)
The person gets up from their armchair and wanders over to the shattered windows. He looks out into the distance and has an expansive view of the horizon. (All govt bodies)
In the middle of the view is a field of huge potato plants that you can see growing as you watch. (Potato Council)
One of the plants is a little different, however, and you see a huge red and white lighthouse push out of the soil and up into the sky. (Lighthouse Commission)
Next imagine a huge hand sweeping down to grasp the lighthouse and whisk it up and away. Your view pans backwards and you see that the hand belongs to a journalist. See a stereotypical journalist in your mind's eye.
They are busily taking notes with a pen that looks a lot like a red and white lighthouse and watching intently as a person is strapped into a chair and tortured by men in army uniforms. (PoW camps and torture programme)
See the journalist then take their pen and stick it into the arm of the person in the chair, as though it were a syringe. See the syringe. (Sterilization programme)
Now see the journalist turn around and watch a clichéd Frenchman walk across the scene. Perhaps wearing a beret, perhaps with a sweater on his shoulders, the sleeves tied in front — whatever your most exaggerated image of a Frenchman might be. (Guy Mollet)
See this Frenchman walk across a huge map of Europe from (Gillies) Gillies, Andrew. Conference Interpreting. Routledge, 20130724. VitalBook file.
Aim: to develop language flexibility in a B language*.
You will need: recorded spoken material.
Listen to interviews or speeches in your B language* and then paraphrase them, again in your B language. It's often easy to say something in one way in your B language*, but more challenging if you are obliged to find another way of saying the same thing. (Gillies) Gillies, Andrew. Conference Interpreting. Routledge, 20130724. VitalBook file.
B.68 Recording vocabulary
Aim: to collect vocabulary in context and in a format that is readily useable.
You will need: a system.
How to record vocabulary: don't make lists!
Record vocab in topic-based groupings, using images. Record words in context, not alone. The meaning of words is clearer if they are recorded in context and the words will be easier to recall.
For those with a visual memory the very fact of noting related terms and expressions side by side on the page will mean that recalling one of them helps to recall those that were around it on the page, or noted at the same time.
Source: Lewis 1993: 126
B.69 Collect vocabulary in collocation
Aim: to collect vocabulary in context and in a format that is readily useable.
You will need: a notebook.
Don't collect new vocabulary in lists, but collect it in context with other words that it can be used with. In this way you have ready phrases to use, rather than single words.
withdraw compromise amendments
vote on far-reaching
Be aware of the methods for vocabulary recording that are out there and which ones work for you. For example, you might have a look at Lewis & Wilberg's seminal students' book Business English, in which they offer a whole range of ways to record vocabulary more effectively. Have a look also at Teaching Collocation by the same author. Details in the bibliography at the back of this book.
Source: Lewis 1993: 126; Lomb 2008: 140; EMCI 2002: 60; Walker 2005
B.70 Create a collocation dictionary
Aim: to collect vocabulary in context and in a format that is readily useable.
You will need: a separate notebook.
Create a collocation dictionary for your active language. That is a collection of pairs of words that are often found together. For example, in English the phrases ‘a heated debate’ or ‘untold suffering’ are used in preference to the many other pairs that would be technically correct, for example, ‘an angry debate’ or ‘grave suffering’. If you are to be convincing in your active languages you too must use them. (Gillies) Gillies, Andrew. Conference Interpreting. Routledge, 20130724. VitalBook file.
C.68 Recreate real meetings
Aim: to use context to help analyze a speech.
You will need: an agenda or programme from a real meeting.
Initially you should do this exercise with a teacher/interpreter who can use their experience to help make things realistic. Once you've got the basics you can do it in practice groups.
You will be able to find agendas and programmes on the internet for events that took place in real life. Choose one on a subject that is not too esoteric and assign one of the named speakers from the agenda to each person in the group. Each person should then prepare a speech as though they were the named speaker assigned to them. The speeches will be interpreted as part of the simulation of a meeting (mock conference).
Each speaker should find out the following in relation to the speaker whose role they are playing. It's fairly easy to find out all this information online.
• Has the speaker written anything on the topic before?
• Does the location have anything to do with promoting literature on the topic?
• Is the speaker linked to any special causes, events, etc.?
• Where does the speaker generally voice his/her opinion?
• Is the speaker in any way related to the place housing the event?
• Will the location influence the speaker's words in any way?
• Why has this person been chosen for this occasion?
• Is the occasion incidental or of relevance to the location?
Before the speaker speaks, allow the ‘interpreter’ to ask the speaker these same questions. When you are comfortable with this exercise the interpreter will have to find out the answers for themselves as part of their meeting preparation and without help from the speaker.
Much of what a speaker may say can be anticipated if we know enough about their background. And if you want to analyse why a speaker is saying something, and which parts of what they say are most important for them, then you must be familiar with that background.
Source: Monacelli 1999: 17 (Gillies) Gillies, Andrew. Conference Interpreting. Routledge, 20130724. VitalBook file.
B.48 Record yourself 1
Aim: to identify, and later eliminate, those mistakes that you recognize when listening but still make when speaking.
You will need: digital voice recorder.
Record yourself speaking your B language*. Listen and analyse your language use. Alternatively, ask a colleague to listen and analyze for you.
You will notice some of your own mistakes while speaking but you will find more when listening to a recording of yourself. (Gillies) Gillies, Andrew. Conference Interpreting. Routledge, 20130724. VitalBook file.
domingo, 8 de abril de 2018
Hoy vi a un tipo tatuado hasta el dedo meñique manejando una camioneta porshe con placas del Estado de Morelos.
Esto es importante porque me hace pensar sobre que clase de gente tiene tanto dinero y como puedo yo ser más astuto que todos para conseguirlo.
49 Multiple paraphrasing
Aim: to train flexibility of expression.
You will need: a few sentences taken from speeches, possibly three other people.
Take any sentence in your active language(s), preferably from a speech that might be interpreted, and paraphrase it into as many versions as you can. Ten different versions should be your target in a B language, twelve would be excellent. In your own language more than fifteen versions is a minimum.
If you like a bit of pressure or competition you could do this as a group, with each person taking turns to give the next version.
Example (Gillies) Gillies, Andrew. Conference Interpreting. Routledge, 20130724. VitalBook file.
C.70 Remembering sentences
Aim: to practise memorization, and be introduced to consecutive.
You will need: someone (probably a teacher) who can prepare simple sentences.
This is an exercise that's useful at an early stage in the study of consecutive.
One person reads out a single simple sentence. Another repeats, or paraphrases, the sentence in the same language without having taken any notes (see no. 1 in the example below). This should be relatively simple. So the next step is take a longer sentence, with more information, but one which still expresses a single idea* (see no. 2 in the example below and the glossary for the definition of ‘idea’ used in this book). Again, the other person repeats or paraphrases the sentence in the same language without having taken any notes.
Next, one person reads out two simple sentences (two ideas*) joined by a logical link (no. 3 in the example below). The other person interprets. Initially it will probably be easier for your teacher to prepare the sentences rather than you, but as you get the hang of it you can also do this exercise on your own.
Example (Gillies) Gillies, Andrew. Conference Interpreting. Routledge, 20130724. VitalBook file.
Erika y yo permanecemos juntos para tener una vida mejor y con la unión de la fuerza de los dos tener los recursos suficientes en todos los sentidos(MASLOW) para hacer frente a situaciones inherentes de la vida , para apoyar al otro a mejorar , para crecer mutuamente.
Para lograr esto debemos ser
sábado, 7 de abril de 2018
Basado en el Bushido
義 Gi — Justicia o Rectitud (decisiones correctas)
Sé honrado en tus tratos con todo el mundo. Cree en la justicia, pero no en la que emana de los demás, sino en la tuya propia. Para un auténtico samurái no existen las tonalidades de gris en lo que se refiere a honradez y justicia. Sólo existe lo correcto y lo incorrecto.
勇 Yu — Coraje
Álzate sobre las masas de gente que temen actuar. Ocultarse como una tortuga en su caparazón no es vivir. Un samurái debe tener valor heroico. Es absolutamente arriesgado. Es peligroso. Es vivir la vida de forma plena, completa, maravillosa. El coraje heroico no es ciego. Es inteligente y fuerte. Reemplaza el miedo por el respeto y la precaución.
仁 Jin — Compasión
Mediante el entrenamiento intenso el samurái se vuelve rápido y fuerte. No es como el resto de los hombres. Desarrolla un poder que debe ser usado en bien de todos. Tiene compasión. Ayuda a sus compañeros en cualquier oportunidad. Si la oportunidad no surge, se sale de su camino para encontrarla.
礼 Rei — Respeto, cortesía
Los samurái no tienen motivos para ser crueles. No necesitan demostrar su fuerza. Un samurái es cortés incluso con sus enemigos. Sin esta muestra directa de respeto no somos mejores que los animales. Un samurái recibe respeto no solo por su fiereza en la batalla, sino también por su manera de tratar a los demás. La auténtica fuerza interior del samurái se vuelve evidente en tiempos de apuros.
誠 Makoto — Honestidad, sinceridad absoluta
Cuando un samurái dice que hará algo, es como si ya estuviera hecho. Nada en esta tierra lo detendrá en la realización de lo que ha dicho que hará. No ha de "dar su palabra", no ha de "prometer", el simple hecho de hablar ha puesto en movimiento el acto de hacer. Hablar y hacer son la misma acción.
名誉「名譽」Meiyo — Honor
Es la virtud más importante de todas. El auténtico samurái sólo tiene un juez de su propio honor, y es él mismo. Las decisiones que toma y cómo las lleva a cabo son un reflejo de quién es en realidad. No puede ocultarse de sí. En caso de quedar mancillado, la única forma de restaurarlo es mediante el Seppuku o suicidio ritual.
忠義 Chuugi — Lealtad
Haber hecho o dicho "algo", significa que ese "algo" le pertenece. Es responsable de ello y de todas las consecuencias que le sigan. Un samurái es intensamente leal a aquellos bajo su cuidado. Para aquellos de los que es responsable, permanece fieramente fiel. Para el guerrero, las palabras de un hombre son como sus huellas: puedes seguirlas donde quiera que él vaya.
Eat not to dullness; drink not to elevation.
Franklin began his list of virtues with temperance because it was the virtue that would develop the self-discipline necessary to adhere to the other 12 virtues. Temperance calls for a man to avoid overindulgence in food or drink. By conquering your primal urges for food and drink, you’ll have the confidence to start making improvements in other areas of your life.
Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself; Avoid trifling Conversation.
We live in an age of constant noise and chatter. Etiquette and polite manners have sadly not kept pace with developments in technology and our quickly changing culture. In the virtue of silence we took a look at how a man can practice this virtue in regards to cell phone use, customer service, and the internet. A man must learn when and when not to open his mouth.
Let all your things have their places; let each part of your business have its time.
If a man wishes to thrive in this world, he must develop order. But the laws of physics tell us that the universe and everything in it tends towards chaos and disorganization. A man must fight against these natural laws and the path of least resistance. Yet taking on complex organization systems will only cause more imbalance in your life. Instead, make small changes by rectifying each slip into disorganization the moment it happens. Do it now.
Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what you resolve.
Resolution is the firm determination to accomplish what you set out to do. In this post, we looked at the story of Alexander the Great conquering the island of Tyre as an example of manly resolution. From Alexander’s conquest at Tyre, we extracted four ways to help improve your resolve in life.
Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself; i.e., waste nothing.
Americans’ savings rate is negative. That’s right, Americans are spending more than they’re saving. With the sluggish economy and soaring gas prices, practicing frugality is quickly coming back into style. While there are countless blogs that go into detail about how to live frugally, it all comes down to one principle: spend less than you earn.
Lose no time. Be always employed in something useful. Cut off all unnecessary actions.
Hard work has been the hallmark of every manly man. However, industriousness has gone out of style. People today are looking for get rich quick schemes that will afford them a huge payout with minimum effort. In reality, honest work is a beneficial and refining endeavor that should be embraced, not disdained. In this post we take on the cult of “The Four-Hour Work Week,” illuminate the value of work, and explain how you can be more industrious in your life.
Use no hurtful deceit; think innocently and justly, and, if you speak, speak accordingly.
If you frequent blogs or internet message boards, you’ve probably noticed the prevalence of gossip, sarcasm, and lying. Unfortunately, we’re starting to see the demeanor that pervades the internet rub off on people in the real world. In this post we discuss how gossip, sarcasm, and lying can harm you and others and how you can work on avoiding these vices.
Wrong none by doing injuries, or omitting the benefits that are your duty.
When I look back at the men I admire most, they all had one thing in common: each of them stood up for the little guy. In a society plagued with apathy, what this world needs now more than ever are men who will stand up for justice. Find out how you can develop the virtue of justice in your life as well as areas that you can implement the virtue.
Avoid extreams; forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve.
Are you looking for more fulfillment and satisfaction in your life? Society will tell you that “more” is the answer, that more money, more stuff, more women, and more pleasure are the keys to gaining satisfaction in life. In reality the secret to a fulfilling life is moderation. In this post, we offer five tips on how you can practice moderation in your life and in turn increase your happiness and pleasure.
Tolerate no uncleanliness in body, cloaths, or habitation.
While many would say cleanliness is more a sign of femininity than manliness, the reality is that developing cleanliness develops a man’s attention to detail, discipline, and order. Of all the virtues, the meaning of cleanliness has changed the most over time. In this post, we discuss that history and then offer suggestions on meeting today’s standard of cleanliness in your home, dress, and personal grooming.
Be not disturbed at trifles, or at accidents common or unavoidable.
The irritations of modern life have left many men hot under the collar. Controlling one’s anger is the mark of a cool and composed gentleman. There are many social and health benefits to controlling your anger. In our discussion on tranquility, we provide 5 suggestions on how men can control their anger and start living more peaceful and tranquil lives.
Rarely use venery but for health or offspring, never to dulness, weakness, or the injury of your own or another’s peace or reputation.
Of all the virtues, chastity is probably the least popular these days. We live in a society in which that glamorizes and exploits sex. Sex is everywhere, on the internet, on TV and in our magazines. But the ubiquity of sex has only cheapened a once sacred act and turned it into just another consumer good to be selfishly consumed. In this post, we take a look at the harmful effects of today’s “hook-up” culture.
Imitate Jesus and Socrates.
The typical image of a manly man is one who is supremely confident, bordering or arrogance. Humility doesn’t seem to fit in that manly image. However, some of the greatest men in history have been the most humble. Humility isn’t weak, submissive, or self-abasing. Humility means having the quiet confidence to allow your actions to speak for themselves. After discussing a lesson on how not to be humble from Greek legend Achilles, we discuss five things you can do to be a little more humble.
miércoles, 4 de abril de 2018
martes, 3 de abril de 2018
Los cinco rasgos o factores principales se suelen denominar tradicionalmente como: factor O (Openness o apertura a nuevas experiencias), factor C (Conscientiousness o responsabilidad), factor E (Extraversion o extraversión), factor A (Agreeableness o amabilidad) y factor N (Neuroticism o inestabilidad emocional), los cinco forman el acrónimo mnemotécnico "OCEAN". Existe cierta discusión sobre el factor O, que a veces se denomina "Intelecto". Cada uno de estos factores consiste en un conjunto más específico de rasgos. Por ejemplo, el factor E incluye cualidades como la sociabilidad, la búsqueda de emociones o las emociones positivas.
En mi caso personal si me califico siendo 5 muy fuerte y 0 nada , quedaría como
inestabilidad emocional 4
De mi esposa sería
inestabilidad emocional 4
Los puntos que yo debo mejorar es amabilidad.
y ella apertura